Early Modern and Classical Liberals

The early modern political thought was bold and outrageous as compared to the classical thought. The Christian unity fell between the 16th and 18th centuries, and an absolutist Christian state was succeeded by a secular government committed to individuals and their rights. Political liberalism first appeared yet in the Reformation and it went on through the Enlightenment. Later thinkers would transform it into the economic utilitarianism and Karl Marx would proceed with socialism. These and more modern theories based on the thoughts of the Enlightenment.
Five revolutions made the way from the ancient political thought to modern liberal views. The Protestant Reformation, the Copernican revolution, the French Revolution, The Kantian revolution, and the English Glorious Revolution created an entirely new political world of Europe. The medieval absolutism with the unlimited power of monarchs and the Church could not stand the pressure of secular governments concerned with individual rights and liberties. There was no chance to preserve the old ways with figures of Nicolas Copernicus, John Locke, and Immanuel Kant.
Reformation brought the first crack to the order imposed by medieval Christianity. In fact, Luther and Calvin were inspired by Aristotle whose writings challenged the Christian rule. The Ptolemy’s model of the universe was another basis on which the medieval Christian society relied. Ptolemy’s geocentric model was dismissed by Nicolas Copernicus who suggested that the sun and not the earth was at the center of the universe. The revolution in mathematics and science brought even more outrageous details to the shaken Christian community. In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant rejected the acceptance based on faith and called the society to question “the truth” and gain new knowledge. He and other thinkers brought new secular and rational political order that was nothing like the medieval authoritarian rule.

Christian Political Thought

Christian texts, as well as studies of Greek and Roman philosophers, are a part of the early classical political thought. They view states as communitarian unities and stress on the importance of ethics and morality in governing. State and society are vital for the full development of individuals. Tough forced to behave legally, people became partially virtuous. That is why prominent Catholic writers, such as Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, argued that state could not exist without the Church that sanctified sinful people. They also believed that transcendent ethics came from God through the Holy Scriptures.
The role of the state and accessibility of transcended ethics changed in the medieval times. The state was not about keeping people virtuous any more. It aimed to maintain lawfulness and order in the society. Similarly, the sovereign brought all virtues, laws, and values to the society. Later, Martin Luther challenged the authoritarian medieval principles. He argued that people did not need an intermediary, such as the Church, between themselves and God. The Reformation began. Jon Calvin implied Luther’s views in the politics. The state with its laws gave virtues and needs to individuals leaving ethics and morals to their own interpretation.
In course of the Reformation, Calvin’s theocracy changed with the ideas of a secular liberal state. Jean Bodin and Richard Hooker stated in their writings that Christian faith is still the source of morals and ethics, but the society is not an entirely Christian one. There was the Protestant church that competed with the Roman church for control over the throne. This time, philosophers became religiously tolerant. The word changed and brought new religious and political organizations.
Post-Reformation liberal paradigm put individual rights over communitarian needs of the classical paradigm. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and others stood for individual rights and liberties ensured by a male and wealthy sovereign. Nevertheless, the impact of Christian thought has not vanished in the Reformation and long after it was over. Liberation theology was challenged in the civil disobedience and the fall of colonialism in the 20th century.

Asian Political Thought

Though democracy, freedom, and equality look like purely Western values, they are universal. These concepts developed out of European context as well so that Asia is not devoid of them either. But still, while European political thought is based on the individual and their needs, Asian political thought puts a group and a hierarchy in the center.
Everything started from Hinduism. Its early forms resembled the religion of ancient Greeks. Hinduism gradually transformed into Buddhism and then into Confucianism that ingrained in Southeast Asia. Confucianism gave the principle of order to everything in nature and society, and its early dialectic resembled the works of Heraclitus, Hegel, and Marx. Yet it was classical Asia with its authoritarian politics. Here freedom was more a religious goal so that it separated from public duties.
Things changed when Asia was colonized. Japan, Korea, China, and Thailand escaped direct rule, nevertheless, their old order changed. But even then Asian societies preserved their sophisticated and very distinct cultures. Colonists were surprised at what they saw outside Europe for it was a unique Oriental world. Translations from Asian works made way to transcendentalism in New England and leaked into the philosophy of Heidegger, Nietzsche, and Hesse.
After World War II, European domination over Asian countries collapsed and the region wanted to regain their lost importance. Nevertheless, it was difficult to do in the mix of the traditional and the colonial. In India, Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi became prominent for establishing liberal democracy. Today India and Japan bear a particular imprint of Western ideas. At the same time, Asian countries preserve their group and family values that still make their policies different from those in the West.

Ancient Political Thought

Political thoughts and social tastes rapidly change with every other epoch, and today we can hardly recall the beginnings of political science. We have some basic understanding of Plato’s or Aristotle’s texts, though we do not suppose they fit the present world after so many centuries. Nevertheless, ancient philosophy is still far from becoming senseless. Though ancient scholars saw the world differently in their time, it did not change much. Ancient societies also entered in political and economic relations. Some of them lived in powerful and flourishing city-states.
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle laid the basis for political science in Athens in the 4th century BC. They recognized the distinctions between nature, convention, and the divine, which is visible in their philosophies. Natural things arise and function without human manipulation, while conventional things exist because of the human intervention. Divine things were considered to be beyond human actions or natural forces. Ancient people believed that the nature of things (either natural or conventional) included the goal inherent in them. All natural things tried to develop to their best, and so did human societies.
The matter of a perfect leader first appeared in works of Plato and Aristotle. The ones with the power implied their values to the entire society. Laws were a fundamental value and they were meant to hold the society together. Eventually, the power went to the virtuous ones who possessed the knowledge and an immaculate moral image. The goal of a polis was to produce the best people. Though idealistic, goals of ancient people were gradually reached.
Ancient texts have a certain value to a present-day student, though now we find them difficult to study. It is difficult to prove that ancient writings are authentic and indeed belong to the greatest philosophers. There is also a problem of interpretation so that we cannot exactly say what the old writing implies.

Game Theory

Game theory is a method of modeling decisions widely used in social sciences. If at least two actors are involved in decision-making, game theory helps to create logical assumptions about the future outcomes. A simple election model with two candidates running for office is a classic case to apply game theory. There are logical relations between the vote, the result of elections, and the policies that follow.
Game theory is not a research method but a tool for modeling. It is used to create hypotheses or draw relations between events. During modeling, game theory detects the essentials and sweeps away little details. That is why game theory cannot reflect the reality. Before it came into politics, game theory was successfully used in economics. The model studied behaviors of competing firms, producers, and consumers.
Many political situations can be treated like games. In fact, a game is a situation in which two or more individuals or players act strategically. They have well-defined goals and act rationally to achieve them. Politics or investors are typical players. Nevertheless, goals can also be emotional or altruistic too as their implementation does not contradict strategic planning. Thus, a game includes a set of players, their strategies, and preferences. A game may come in a normal or extended form. In the first pattern, the method specifies conditions for each player who makes decisions without knowing decisions of the others. An extended form implies players creating a sequence of actions. Such a game can be represented in a game tree.

Life experience essay for pharmacy school example

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Dog grooming SWOT analysis

To begin with, SWOT analysis refers to Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that one may come across in the course of working on some project or business venture. The issues for which the SWOT analysis can be carried out are as follows: product, place, person or industry. So, the main goal here is to identify an objective, as well as internal and external factors that are favorable or unfavorable for achieving that aim. Major information regarding the issue in question is usually grouped in two categories which have already been mentioned above. These are external and internal factors. So, those strengths and weaknesses that are internal to the organization are called internal factors. Speaking about external factors, these are the opportunities and threats that are produced by the environment which is external to the given organization. 
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